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Glossary

Cancer types, treatments and terminology

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Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

<p>DIPG is a type of tumor that starts in the brain stem, the part of the brain just above the back of the neck and connected to the spine. The brain stem controls breathing, heart rate and the nerves and muscles that help us see, hear, walk, talk and eat. These tumors are called gliomas because they grow from glial cells, a type of supportive cell in the brain</p>
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Glioma

<p>Childhood brain stem glioma is a disease in which benign (noncancer) or malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain stem. Gliomas are tumors formed from glial cells. Glial cells in the brain hold nerve cells in place, bring food and oxygen to them, and help protect them from disease, such as infection.</p>
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Hepatoblastoma

<p>Childhood liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the liver.</p>
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Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

<p>Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (also called ALL or acute lymphocytic leukemia) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. This type of cancer usually gets worse quickly if it is not treated.</p>
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Acute Myeloid Leukemia

<p>Childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. AML is also called acute myelogenous leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. Cancers that are acute usually get worse quickly if they are not treated. Cancers that are chronic usually get worse slowly.</p>
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Cancer

<p>The types of cancers that occur most often in children are different from those seen in adults. The most common cancers of children are:</p><ul> <li>Leukemia</li> <li>Brain and spinal cord tumors</li> <li>Neuroblastoma</li> <li>Wilms tumor</li> <li>Lymphoma (including both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin)</li> <li>Rhabdomyosarcoma</li> <li>Retinoblastoma</li> <li>Bone cancer (including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma)</li> </ul>
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Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor

<p>Central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a very rare, fast-growing tumor of the brain and spinal cord. It usually occurs in children aged three years and younger, although it can occur in older children and adults. About half of these tumors form in the cerebellum or brain stem.</p>
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Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

<p>DIPG is a type of tumor that starts in the brain stem, the part of the brain just above the back of the neck and connected to the spine. The brain stem controls breathing, heart rate and the nerves and muscles that help us see, hear, walk, talk and eat. These tumors are called gliomas because they grow from glial cells, a type of supportive cell in the brain</p>
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Glioma

<p>Childhood brain stem glioma is a disease in which benign (noncancer) or malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain stem. Gliomas are tumors formed from glial cells. Glial cells in the brain hold nerve cells in place, bring food and oxygen to them, and help protect them from disease, such as infection.</p>
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Hepatoblastoma

<p>Childhood liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the liver.</p>
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Medulloblastoma

<p>Most CNS embryonal tumors are medulloblastomas. Medulloblastomas are fast-growing tumors that form in brain cells in the cerebellum</p><p>Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors form in embryonic cells that remain in the brain after birth. CNS embryonal tumors tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to other parts of the brain and spinal cord.</p>
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Neuroblastoma

<p>Neuroblastoma is a cancer of immature nerve cells that most often occurs in young children. It usually begins in the adrenal glands but can form in the neck, chest, abdomen, and spine</p>
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Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

<p>Childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that forms in the lymph system, which is part of the body's immune system. The immune system protects the body from foreign substances, infection, and diseases.</p>
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Pilocytic Astromcytoma

<p>Childhood astrocytoma is a disease in which benign (noncancer) or malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain.</p><p>Astrocytomas are tumors that start in star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes. An astrocyte is a type of glial cell. Glial cells hold nerve cells in place, bring food and oxygen to them, and help protect them from disease, such as infection. Gliomas are tumors that form from glial cells. An astrocytoma is a type of glioma.</p>
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Rhabdomyosarcoma

<p>Rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of sarcoma. Sarcoma is cancer of soft tissue (such as muscle), connective tissue (such as tendon or cartilage), or bone. Rhabdomyosarcoma usually begins in muscles that are attached to bones and that help the body move. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma in children. It can begin in many places in the body.</p><p>There are three main types of rhabdomysosarcoma:</p>
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Medulloblastoma

<p>Most CNS embryonal tumors are medulloblastomas. Medulloblastomas are fast-growing tumors that form in brain cells in the cerebellum</p><p>Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors form in embryonic cells that remain in the brain after birth. CNS embryonal tumors tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to other parts of the brain and spinal cord.</p>
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Neuroblastoma

<p>Neuroblastoma is a cancer of immature nerve cells that most often occurs in young children. It usually begins in the adrenal glands but can form in the neck, chest, abdomen, and spine</p>
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Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

<p>Childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that forms in the lymph system, which is part of the body's immune system. The immune system protects the body from foreign substances, infection, and diseases.</p>
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Pilocytic Astromcytoma

<p>Childhood astrocytoma is a disease in which benign (noncancer) or malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain.</p><p>Astrocytomas are tumors that start in star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes. An astrocyte is a type of glial cell. Glial cells hold nerve cells in place, bring food and oxygen to them, and help protect them from disease, such as infection. Gliomas are tumors that form from glial cells. An astrocytoma is a type of glioma.</p>
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Rhabdomyosarcoma

<p>Rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of sarcoma. Sarcoma is cancer of soft tissue (such as muscle), connective tissue (such as tendon or cartilage), or bone. Rhabdomyosarcoma usually begins in muscles that are attached to bones and that help the body move. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma in children. It can begin in many places in the body.</p><p>There are three main types of rhabdomysosarcoma:</p>
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t - v
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w - z
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